During the process of formation of tourism and tourist movements inevitably occurs deformation of the environment. Today, environment preservation problems and it`s improvements have occupied an considerable place in many scientific researches in developed countries. Formerly, studies of the analysis of tourist activities have not been given much attention, and then people began pay attention to the analysis of the influence of tourism only in particular places of the planet or have considered the effects of selected types of tourism. With the aim of promoting tourism successfully and rapidly, it is crucial to preserve and multiply, as well as to improve natural wealth. The circumstances and welfare of the environment plays an important role in the development of the tourism industry.

Ecology (translated from Greek oikos means home, homeland) the science of the connection between living being and the environment, the conditions of their habitat and all other natural processes that make the environment suitable for life. Respect for nature is part of the attractive elements of tourism and travel. Hotels, campsites, resorts which were built in the wilderness and confer due attention to environmental questions, maintenance of natural  resources and cultural heritage, are becoming more popular and attract new, environmentally conscientious and prepared tourists. On the one hand ecological tourism is a journey to untouched by human hand, ecologically clean and wild corners of nature to maintain ecological balance in nature. But on the other hand-the term «ecotourism» is considered as a slogan of the sold tour product. But in both cases ecotourism is seen accepted as an absolutely necessary element of effective tourism improvement. It is known that tourism can affect nature in different ways. Travel industry uses natural, cultural and historical fund of the country, produces waste, pollutes air, water and soil, has a detrimental effect on nature. Transport uses irreplaceable fuels, polluting the environment.

Ecotourism is a fairly new concept, in the interpretation of which disagreements are allowed. It is intended to create economic favor for the protection of the environment. At the same time, the concept of «ecotourism» covers and provides a fairly wide range of travel — from small educational tours for schoolchildren to stationary tourist programs in national parks and reserves. The income from this type of tourism can be applied in part to environmental financing activities. The largest volume of demand for eco-tourism in regions providing tourist flows noted in North America and Western Europe (especially Germany), as well as in Australia and New Zealand. In certain countries, great value is also the demand for ecological tourism in the domestic market (e.g. Thailand, Indonesia).

The trend for active rest in the fresh air, improving health care and maintaining the physical form has led people to reconsider their attitude to the way you should vacation. By this time, many of the usual «beach and resort» areas have reached the «point of saturation»; tourists seeking to visit away from the bustle of the city, tour operators began to offer new exotic places and recreation, and in particular, eco-tourism.

In the process of development of tourism and tourist movements inevitably occurs deformation of the environment. Today, environmental protection issues and it`s improvements have occupied an important place in many studies in developed countries. In the past, researches of the analysis of tourist activities have not been given much attention, and then people began pay attention to the analysis of the impact of tourism only in certain places of the planet or have considered the effects of selected types of tourism.

The importance of the environment as a base for tourism development is growing. Based on the analyses of the WTO, the interest of society to issues of environmental protection in 2020 will increase. Residents of many countries are worried about the state of the environment.

In order to promote tourism successfully and rapidly, it is important to preserve and multiply, as well as to improve natural resources. The state and well-being of the environment plays an important role in the development of the tourism industry.

The impact of the tourism industry on the environment can be direct and indirect, as well as positive and negative. Development of tourism without interaction with the environment is impossible, but with the help of sound management of the development of this industry and clear planning it is possible to reduce the negative impact and increase the positive.

The positive effects of the tourism industry include: the protection and restoration of historical and cultural monuments, the opening and improvement of national parks and reserves, the protection of coasts and reefs, the preservation of forests, etc.

Careful attitude to nature and the environment is one of the attractive elements of tourism and travel. Hotels, campsites, resorts that were built in the wilderness and give due attention to environmental issues, preservation of natural wealth and cultural heritage, are becoming more popular and attract new, environmentally conscious and prepared for tourists.

On the one hand ecotourism is a journey to untouched by human hand, ecologically clean and wild corners of nature to maintain ecological balance in nature. But on the other hand-the term «ecotourism» is considered as a slogan of the sold tour product. But in both cases ecotourism is seen as an essential element of successful tourism development. It is known that tourism can affect nature in different ways. Tourism industry uses natural, cultural and historical resources of the country, produces waste, pollutes air, water and soil, has a detrimental effect on nature. Transport uses irreplaceable fuels, polluting the environment.

Ecotourism is a fairly new concept, in the interpretation of which disagreements are allowed. It is intended to create economic benefits for the preservation of the environment. At  the same time, the concept of «ecotourism» covers and provides a fairly wide range of travel — from small educational tours for schoolchildren to permanent tourist programs in national parks and reserves. The profits from this type of tourism can be used in part to Finance conservation activities. Analysts of the World Tourism Organization have identified a number of conditions for the functioning of the market of ecological tourism:

  • ensuring transport accessibility of ecotourism facilities;
  • the presence of a unique and attractive objects not only for highly specialized eco- tourists, but also for ordinary temporary visitors;
  • reasonable pricing;
  • comfortable organization of

In different countries, studies have been conducted, the results of which show that the main motive of tourists visiting ecological tours is the desire to enjoy the pristine nature.

Key principles of ecological tourism:

  1. Travel to nature, the purpose of which is to get acquainted with the local nature, as well as with local traditions and
  2. To minimize the negative impact of environmental and socio-cultural nature, maintaining ecological stability of the
  3. Assistance in the protection of nature and the local socio-cultural
  4. Environmental
  5. The interest of local residents in receiving their income from tourism activities, which creates economic incentives for them to protect
  6. The economic benefit and contribution to the stable and successful development of the visited

The modern interpretation of ecological tourism, the course to achieve stability as an end result in many respects force to reconsider the established ideas about what types of travel are ecotourism. At the same time, the traditional criteria — the interest of travelers  and the volume of tourist flows — are certainly important, but do not play a decisive role in themselves.

In Western countries, scientific, educational and recreational tourism is distinguished by the nature and peculiarities of occupations.

Here it is necessary to consider that in the countries of the West tourism in comparison with recreation is a broader concept. In other words, recreation in the understanding of Western scientists is part of tourism. The Soviet scientific society, on the contrary, treats recreation as something more extensive than tourism.

  1. Scientific type of ecological tourism usually includes expeditions of scientists, summer practices of students and other travels, the purpose of which is to collect scientific information about the visited region. Scientific tourism usually accounts for a relatively small share of the total tourist flow, but its role can be quite significant. Namely, it can significantly help in updating information about poorly studied areas and facilities. The information received may include: being useful not only for the development of science, but also for the further development of ecotourism in the region on a permanent basis. This type of tourism can contribute to the expansion of scientific and educational ties between different countries, to initiate important international
  2. Cognitive ecotourism is»ecotourism in traditional representation». Its variations can be considered bird watching tours (birdwatching), whales or exotic butterflies, Botanical tours, archaeological, ethnographic and paleontological trips, eco-safaris, tours for fans of video and
  3. The main reference point of recreational ecotourism is a vacation in nature, which pursues certain cognitive goals. Such tourism is divided into active and passive. Its active forms often include speleo tourism, many types of mountain and water travel. A passive type of recreational tourism can be attributed, for example, rest in tent camps, short hikes and walks, picnics. The category of passive recreational tourism can also include fishing and collecting gifts of nature, carried out without harm to the environment.

For many years we could not understand what is the main tourism product of Kazakhstan, what we offer today. We conducted a study of the tourism product of Kazakhstan, came to an understanding, it is ecotourism. In Kazakhstan, the first ecotourism information resource centre was established in 2005. As part of it, we have created about 80 guest houses in different regions of the country. These guest houses worked, but some of it was preserved until this year. The problem is that there are no tourists. Therefore, of course, the owners of the houses were forced to close them. At the same time, there are regions such as South Kazakhstan, Almaty and Karaganda regions. These regions have managed to preserve the infrastructure of ecological tourism and actively accept tourists. Currently, citizens of 20 countries from European and Asian countries have the right to enter the country without a visa for up to 15 days. We noticed that after the introduction of this measure, the flow of tourists increased.

For many years ecotourism has been a very small segment in the tourism sector of Kazakhstan. Only 10-12% of the total volume. In the international market, we are of interest as a country for business proposals and investment, but since the beginning of the summer season 2016, we noticed that there was a revival, we began to go eco- tourists.

«There are a lot of different directions for tourism and recreation in our country,» Nursultan Nazarbayev said. — Near Almaty — mountains, beautiful Kolsay gorge, in southern Kazakhstan – Aksu-Dzhabagly nature reserve, in the West of the Republic — Shalkar lake, the Caspian sea, in Karaganda region — Karkaraly, in Pavlodar — Bayanauyl».

Kazakhs, frankly, domestic ecotourist product while a little interested. The reason is that citizens have a poor idea of domestic tourism. Outbound tourism is very prestigious, and many of our fellow citizens are chasing after the mainstream.

Reference:

  1. Martha Honey Ecotourism and Sustainable Development, Second Edition – 257 p
  2. Tourism in National Parks and Protected Areas: Planning and Management (Cabi) by Paul F J Eagles – 135 p
  3. Susanne Becken Tourism and the Environment – 136 p.

Raikhanova Zh.B. – «Tourism» 2nd year student Al Farabi KazNU

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